newsletter link
mondo arc
MONDO ARC

Human Interaction

October / November 2014


Dr Matthias Hank Haeusler, media architecture expert, explains ‘System Thinking’ as a method to combine several media façades into a digital ecology.

We have moved into an era where media façades and media architecture are no longer a novel feature in our cities, but are rather more commonplace.

As I have discussed in previous publications, and as further evidenced by the Media Architecture Institute (MAI) members’ research, there are now many examples of media facades projects of various scales and approaches located across the globe.

Given this, I believe it is time to rethink the conceptualisation of media architecture as merely a design (architectural integration and façade element), technology (LED and lighting technology), and media content (interaction and curating) topic. While there remain significant post-cinematic opportunities for media façades and urban screens, particularly through the combination of participatory content with site context, these are often very site-specific design challenges.

Alternatively, what I want to propose here are the ways media architecture projects can fit into a framework of thinking and theory that shifts the focus from object-based (media façades), towards the design of a system that generates and connects a ‘digital ecology’.

The origins of this ‘digital ecology’ approach are drawn from General System Theory. More specifically this relates to its subset Systems Thinking theory, as advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and later folded into architectural theory by notable figures such as with Christopher Alexander in the 1960s.  Bertalanffy argues for the ‘whole’ of functioning systems and that the overall behaviour of the ‘whole’ is accomplished through the ‘interaction among parts’ as argued by Alexander.

Alexander in his text ‘Systems Generating Systems’ asserted that: “A generating system is not a view of a single thing. It is a kit of parts; with rules about the way these parts may be combined and a system as a whole is not an object but a way of looking at an object. It focuses on some holistic properties, which can only be understood as a product of interaction amongst parts.”

In the context of this article, a more detailed outline of these theories cannot be elaborated on here, yet most readers interested in media architecture are likely to be familiar with some of the key tenets, such as the concept of ‘interaction’.

A key objective of many media façade projects to date has been to communicate content and generate forms of interactive engagement between the user or observer and the media façade. Here however the concept of a digital ecology extends beyond simply the user/observer-façade mode of interaction and Alexander’s theoretical concepts become a useful way here to frame this approach.

Firstly, this concerns the concept of ‘generating a system’, that is, understanding the ‘design’ not as a single entity but rather as ‘a kit of parts’. Secondly, this pertains to the concept of a ‘system as a whole’, as that which is not an object, but rather, a way of looking at an object through an organisational logic.

According to Alexander, any building can be understood as a building system that is a generating system with a ‘traditional’ kit of parts – columns, beams, panels, windows, doors and so on. All of these parts are assembled according to certain rules in order to function as a system. While not traditionally considered as part of the architectural kit of parts, it is argued here that urban screens and media façades, as well as sensors, actuators and computing hardware can be more purposefully integrated within an overall building system.

Turning now to the second concept, ‘a system as a whole’, Alexander further describes this as holistic phenomena, which can only be understood as a product of interaction amongst parts.  Seen in this way we can begin to think of interactions between multiple buildings over the scale of a council area, a city, even a region, or perhaps globally.

Public transport is a good example of a holistic phenomenon, as it only functions as a whole. The parts can be considered as the physical infrastructure, train stations or bus stops; the trains or buses, the tracks or routes the vehicle drives along, which together which form a system.

Yet there has also been criticism on Alexander’s work that his thinking, as Menges and Ahlquist have previously argued, only provides a way to characterise a system, but not extensively describe the process by which a system can be generated. I would join this criticism by arguing that a system with ‘interaction amongst parts’ needs further means of feedback to control the constrained relationships to another; to enable the assembly of parts to certain constraints; and to ensure the proper interaction of these parts. This is the point in which media façades as well as sensors or actuators and computing hardware, can play a significant role in supporting an ‘interaction amongst parts’ as a part of the system and by monitoring the ‘interaction amongst parts’ to achieve a holistic phenomenon.

Consequently one needs to look into what primary modes of interaction exist to develop a feedback system to control, enable and ensure the rules. Kirchner et al. has argued for four primary modes of interaction:
(a) Human -> System (Human acts on the System); (b) System -> Human (System acts on/for the Human); (c) Human <- System (Human observes the System); and (d) System <- Human (System observes the Human), Relatedly, I have previously argued in the article ‘Architecture = Computer’, for a need for a fifth mode of interaction – a System < - > System mode (System observes and acts on/for the other system).

This is useful here because it gives a system an indication or rules of what to observe and what to act upon, the system needs to understand in the first place what kind of system it is. A system in architecture could be defined through its typology.

Thus one could argue for two possible rules for interaction amongst parts (building systems) in a city system – non-typology specific rules and typology specific rules to define an interaction between systems. In detail, the first non-typology specific rules describe the interaction between for example an office building and an apartment block.

The second typology specific rules describe the interaction within one typology, for example two bus stops or train stations. Whereas the first is harder to define, as the rules can be compared with communications between typologies, the second one is clearer. The first, non-typology specific rule, can be compared with a conversation between a fanatic soccer fan (i.e. office building typology) and a chess game lover (i.e. apartment block typology) where both have very clear rules (passion) within their system (hobby), but one has to first establish and understand rules (a common discussion point) amongst both systems to achieve a holistic phenomenon (a long lasting conversation).

The second, typology specific, on the other hand is like two passionate gardeners (i.e. bus stops) who have both the same interest (rules of interaction amongst parts) talking to each other about flowers and trees (timetable information and bus arrivals). In short, when a common ‘conversation’ topic is established between various buildings of the same typology (or two people) consequently an interaction between them become more possible.

Thus through non-typological and topological specific rules a modus operandi for generating media content exists that does not see the media facade content as a site specific interaction, but as part of a digital ecology where parts (building systems) like screens and sensors are connected as Alexander has described it with ‘rules about the ways these parts may be combined’.

One way that this approach to reframing media architecture in terms of a digital ecology has been applied is in the context of public transport design in the recent book Interchanging – Future Scenarios for Responsive Transport Infrastructure Design.

Here bus stops were equipped with media façades, urban screens and sensors to enable concepts like real-time information relating to bus arrivals enabled through GPS and communicated through screens integrated within the bus stop infrastructure to facilitate more informed public transport decision-making; active surveillance through cameras on bus stops displayed on screens at other bus stops for enhanced security; or location-based information about events, transport connections and points of interest used to establish a dynamic wayfinding system; and even new revenue models for providing, maintaining and operating bus stops.

Thus one can conclude that this way of thinking has the potential to be applied in other ways for the built environment and could extend media architecture to other performative realms. Hence to achieve what Alexander had potentially envisioned when he asked for new, subtler kind of building, which doesn’t merely generate buildings, but generates buildings guaranteed to function as holistic systems in the social, human sense.

www.mab14.org

Dr M. Hank Haeusler Dipl.-Ing. (FH) / PhD (SIAL/RMIT) is Senior Lecturer at the School of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Australia.

The Media Architecture Biennale brings together artists, industry and academia to show and discuss products, trends and challenges within the realm of media architecture. This year’s biennale is in Aarhus, Denmark, November 20-22, 2014. The pre-conference event is to be held in Copenhagen on November 19.

 

Users Comments

Купить Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) новинку 2015 года
Posted By Anthonytauh 1 October 22, 2015 09:26:35 AM

Хай пользователи форума www.mondoarc.com, около месяца назад я писал как я с братом ездил на охоту отыхать и как положено заблудился и если бы не Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) то было бы труба хоть МЧС вызывай через спутниковый телефон хорошо что с собой был Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) нашли дорогу без проблем , так пользователь под ником MakssSync просил меня запостить последние модели Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) в 2015, так вот наконецто нашел время для этого, админы прошу не удалять, а перенести в соответствующий раздел, если я ошибся с постом 6] Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) стоимость 52067.00 RUR Если Вам понравились Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31), нажмите кнопку "Хочу купить" ниже чтоб узнать где выгодней всего купить GPS навигатор http://ligazvuka.ru/published/publicdata/LIGAGA/attachments/SC/products_pictures/010-01174-31.jpg http://upload.akusherstvo.ru/image863666.jpg посмотрите другие последние разработки GPS навигаторов А вот еще ключевые слова по которым люди ищут GPS навигаторы: - купить Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) - заказать Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) - цена Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) - интернет магазин Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) - фото Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) - Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) 2015 - интернет магазин Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) Москва - новинки Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) 2015 - практичные Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) 2013 - Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) для рыбалки - купить Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) Москва - купить Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) Киев - купить Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) Санкт-петербург - интернет магазин Спортивные часы GPS Garmin Forerunner 920XT Bundle HRM-Run White & Red (010-01174-31) Москва Еще сылки на новые модели GPS авигаторов 2015 года купить новинки GPS авигаторов купить новинки 2015 года GPS авигаторов скачать карты для GPS авигаторов новинки GPS авигаторов автомобильные GPS авигаторы GPS авигаторы для туризма #€®#

Где посоветуете купить шины, диски для автомобиля в интернете? ?
Posted By CharlesSi 1 November 10, 2015 10:29:31 PM

Добрый вечер, пользователи сайта. Расскажите - может кто-то заказывал шины или диски для машины онлайн в интернете магазине? Где лучше купить?

Где посоветуете заказывать шины и диски для авто в интернет магазине? ?
Posted By CharlesSi 1 November 11, 2015 09:02:38 PM

Добрый день, форумчане. Расскажите - кто-то заказывал шины и диски для автомобиля в интернете? Где посоветуете купить?
Post a Comment
Security Code* Get another image
 
 
Dr Matthias Hank Haeusler
Related Articles

SEARCH

Follow us on…

Follow Mondo Arc Magazine on Twitter Follow Mondo Arc Magazine on Facebook Follow Mondo Arc Magazine on Linked In





mondo arc india









darc awards DWLF IALD PLDC LRO