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Solid State Success

Issue 58 Dec/Jan 2010-11

2010 was the year of undeniable SSL success with disruptive innovation everywhere. Geoff Archenhold reports on a momentous period.

At this point in lighting history I feel exceptionally privileged to be working amongst the lighting community during what must be one of the most disruptive times seen since core lamp technology turned from gas to electricity more than 150 years ago. 2010 has been one of the most exciting years I have seen in quite a while with new LED technology delivering on the promises of the last few years and exciting prospects of OLED technology coming to market with a different form factor to enable lighting designers to create new ways of delivering light in the home, office and workplace over the next five years.

Despite the backdrop of further global economic gloom, mass protests in Greece, France, Ireland and the UK, looming currency trade wars and much more besides the lighting industry has been a great sector to focus on more positive aspects such as growing awareness of energy efficient lighting, higher quality lighting with improved power spectral density wavelengths, growing markets, advanced controls, entrepreneurial new companies, exciting lighting technologies and above all the adrenaline rush of traditional companies realising they will be dead in the water unless they move quickly to gain a foothold in the new LED world.

One only has to reflect on key moments in 2010 such as the Light and Building exhibition in Frankfurt (I still remember the trek to get back to the UK!) to demonstrate how quickly LED lighting has been adopted by the major, as well as smaller players, in the global lighting market.

However it is the announcements that have been made since April that have really caught the imagination of fixture manufacturers and designers. For example, this month we have seen record breaking announcements for high-CRI (>0.9) high efficacy white LEDs and breakthroughs in coloured LED efficacies making the LED industry one of the most exciting sectors to follow in 2011.

I believe 2011 will see the first major step towards integrated controls into lighting systems without significant cost to the overall design. By the end of 2011 there will be little extra cost to installing RDM, mains dimmable, DALI, Power Line Control or indeed Wi-Fi to a complete lighting system and with low-cost 7” to 10” portable touch screen tablets rapidly coming onto the market we will see controls easily integrated onto Apple, Microsoft and Android platforms making the user’s lighting experience completely different to what has gone before.
2011 is going to be very exciting and, from the comments I have had from several leading LED characters, it’s not going to slow down either!

Before we start dreaming about the technology, let’s remind ourselves there are still major drawbacks to the new wild-west LED frontier that the industry needs to refine moving forward including some of the following:

1) Steep technology curve: A major issue for LED fixture manufacturers is that the LED technology is still on a major hockey stick development curve with the main LED manufacturers releasing better improved, more efficient LED emitters on a six month timescale. Fortunately many of these improvements are based on the same LED footprint so there is little need to redesign the system. However this is not always the case. How does an end-user, let alone the fixture manufacturer, decide which LED to opt for and how much stock they should hold as the stock turn is very quick?

2) Too many LED choices: The type, format and power rating of LEDs have become even more taxing as a whole raft of new variants enter the market. This year we have seen high voltage LEDs, further AC LEDs, large die LED, a raft of new LED array all the way up to 60W and beyond as well as LEDs with small forward currents and large forward currents. Until there are common platforms for LED modules then I believe it will be an inefficient LED community requiring new design iterations depending on which LED company provides the best price/performance at the time of design thus requiring a substantial redesign when another LED manufacturer improves on the last one. One has to ask about the Zhaga consortium as that seems to have gone very quiet - perhaps they need to learn from Google, Facebook and other high technology companies about the creation of social marketing media as it works well or perhaps they want to be the industry’s best kept secret. Who knows?!

3) Not all parts of the LED system are maturing at the same time: LEDs are maturing rapidly and by 2015 tier one LED manufacturers will have reached 90% of the theoretical efficacy limits of white light paving the way for standardisation. The main issue I see today is that other parts of the SSL system are not mature and offer a great variety in outcomes such as flexibility, choice, price, reliability and safety. Such examples include the LED driver (AC/DC, DC/DC), the types of connectors used to interface to the light fixture and the control protocols that need to be defined to take advantage of the new technology. Is DALI, 0-10V, RDM or mains dimmable really going to take advantage of the LED fixtures of the future?

4) Quality and Product Cost: The lighting industry is still working to its old ways of driving down costs to beat the equivalent incumbent lamp technology but it should instead focus on quality of light, usability, functionality, efficiency as well as cost. The commodity market will occur for LEDs when the quality gap closes between China and Taiwan and the tier one manufacturers today - ie; less than three years - so why not focus on longer term sustainable models for the lighting industry which include innovation, quality and branding? Again, the lighting industry should look towards companies such as Apple, they don’t make the cheapest mobile phone but a lot of people own one!

5) Increased lead times: The shortage of electronics components such as capacitors and IC’s has meant that a large number of LED driver companies have pushed out lead times to 12-18 weeks creating shortages. This is expected to continue well into 2011.

Top LED market features of 2010
During 2010 there have been some major LED milestones reached. However the key elements achieved by the industry were the rapid increase in production LEDs efficacy, significant rises in CRI, the dominating role of LED emitter arrays within downlighter type applications and the use of lower power LED emitters for use in LED retrofit T5, T8 and 600mm x 600mm fluorescent lamp replacements.
Major breakthroughs on LED efficiency of note were those of Citizen, Cree, OSRAM, Epistar, Nichia and Philips, all of whom announced volume production LED emitters that consistently broke company or industry lm/W records.

Interestingly, the strategies among LED manufacturers have varied this year as many of them differentiate themselves from their competitors with many of them focusing on the following:

1) High efficacy, high wattage LED arrays - These were introduced primarily by Citizen, Bridgelux and Sharp to replace halogen, HID and CFL for retail and downlight applications.
2) AC LED emitters - Philips and Seoul Semiconductor have launched or upgraded the AC LED emitter offerings primarily for low-wattage traditional lamp replacements due to less onerous driver requirements.
3) Standard LED emitters - OSRAM, Philips, Nichia and Cree all updated their performance for white and coloured LEDs during the year covering general applications.
4) Large Die LED emitters - Cree, Philips and Luminous Devices upgraded their large die offerings to provide high optical power density light sources focusing on MR16 and spot type applications as well as high optical power applications.
5) High voltage/low current LED emitters - A new class of LED emitters specifically for reducing the LED driver burden with currents up to 30mA used specifically for light bulb/tube replacements.

The year ended on a significant high with Cree announcing the new range of high-CRI LED XP-G emitters that offer a CRI of 80, 85 and 90 without compromising LED efficiency. Such breakthroughs in phosphor and LED packaging performance will now enable the last areas of lighting to fall under the influence of LED fixtures.

Finally, the sheer engineering prowess of Citizen has enabled them to launch a 26W and 41W LED array containing multiple LED dies that have the same efficacy performances (73lm/W for 3000K and 105lm/W for 5000K) as a typical single 1W LED emitter in both 3000K and 5000K CCT.

In many ways 2010 was a historic year for the LED and lighting community and so we shall cover this year’s innovation on a month-by-month basis.

Bridgelux: unveils three new LED array product families (see figure 1) that deliver high-quality, energy-efficient light sources. These new products are designed to replace incandescent, halogen, high intensity discharge (HID) and compact fluorescent lighting.

•    The Bridgelux ES Array Series delivers between 400 and 2000 ‘hot’ lumens in a compact high flux density light source, enabling the replacement of incandescent, halogen and fluorescent conventional light sources. These new arrays are 30-60% more energy-efficient than 2009 models while dramatically reducing the price per lumen.

•    The Bridgelux RS Array Series delivers high light output for applications including retail, street, wide area, high bay, and commercial lighting, replacing conventional light sources such as 50-70 watt metal halide (HID) and high wattage compact fluorescent (CFL) lamps. These arrays produce between 3100 and 4500 ‘hot’ lumens. In retail lighting installations, these arrays have delivered a return on investment of less than two years while delivering the high quality of light proven to positively influence product turnover and customer experience in this environment.

•    The Bridgelux LS Array Series is a new set of miniaturised LED arrays that enable both diffuse and directional light sources for applications including landscape lighting, home luminaires, white goods and retrofit light bulbs. Delivering between 240 and 360 lumens, these products are ideal replacements for low wattage halogen, incandescent and CFL lamps.

Cree: raises the LED performance bar for both white and coloured LEDs:
•    Launches the XLamp® MPL EasyWhite LED to offer the performance, colour consistency and lumen density required  to displace conventional light sources, all in the industry’s smallest package. The multi-chip XLamp MPL EasyWhite LED is optimised for directional lighting applications, including PAR- or BR-style light bulbs. The new package delivers up to 1500 Lumens at 75 lumens per Watt based on a compact 12mm x 13mm footprint.

•    Announces the record R&D efficacy result of 208 lumens per watt for a white power LED. Cree’s tests confirmed that the LED produced 208 lumens of light output and achieved 208 lumens per watt efficacy at a correlated colour temperature of 4579K. The tests were conducted under standard LED test conditions at a drive current of 350mA at room temperature.

•    Raises Performance Levels for XLamp XP LEDs including the commercial availability of higher-flux bins for warm- and cool-white XLamp XP-E LEDs and higher maximum forward currents for both XLamp XP-E and XP-G LEDs. XP-E cool white LEDs were available in the R3 bin, 122-130 lumens at 350 mA, delivering up to 116 lumens per watt. Warm-white (3000 K) XP-E LEDs were available in the Q3 bin, 94-100 lumens at 350 mA. The maximum forward current for all XLamp XP-E white LEDs were increased to 1 A whilst the maximum forward current for XLamp XP-G LEDs was raised to 1.5 A, delivering up to 493 lumens at 92 lumens per watt. XP-G LEDs deliver high efficacy at high currents.

Xicato: launch the ‘Artist Series’ spot module range - a functional replacement for traditional halogen lamp technologies with a CRI of 95, offering all the life and energy-saving advantages of LEDs with no light-technical or aesthetic compromises.

•    The range has a CRI (Colour Rendering Index) of Ra over 95, including almost perfect rendering of deep reds that the lamp industry has until now found problematic.

•    The range develops Xicato’s goal of providing LED based lighting with all intrinsic energy and longevity benefits of LEDs but with no compromises. It is a genuine halogen equivalent, and as such ideally suited for retail, domestic, hospitality and gallery / museum applications.

•    Furthermore Xicato’s Corrected Cold Phosphor Technology (shown in figure  2) ensures that colour points centred on the Black Body Locus for a perfectly natural light are maintained to a 2 step MacAdam ellipse tolerance, part to part and through life. Three CCTs (Correlated Colour Temperatures) are available: 2700K, 3000K and 4000K.

•    The Artist Series has also been optimised to get excellent results for the more saturated and skin colour samples of the CRI reference set. For the deep red R9 reference sample, a value of R9 over 90 has been achieved for the 2700K and 3000K Artist Series, and the same R9 is over 85 for the 4000K Artist Series. These numbers not only outperform other LED solutions but also traditional lamp types like compact fluorescent and compact metal halide. For the R10 to R14 CRI reference samples the average of R10-R14 is over 95 for the 2700K and 3000K modules, and over 92 for the 4000K modules. For the R15 reference sample, which is representative of Asian skin tones, a value of R15 over 95 is obtained.

•    The Artist Series modules produce 700 lumens when run at 700mA - wattage in this case is of approximately 20W.

Seoul Semiconductor: launches the newly improved Acriche A4 AC driven LED emitter to 100 lumens per watt for its cool white version and 90 lumens per watt for its warm white product.

Sharp: introduces the MiniZeni series of LED arrays that produces up to 410 lumens in just 6.7 watts with dimensions of 15 x 12 x 1.6 millimetres. The new models are available in two series: a 6.7W and a 3.6W series with the 6.7W consisting of a total of 45 LEDs that are arranged in fifteen parallel-switched series of three. The matrix of the 3.6W emitter consists of a total of 24 LEDs that are arranged in eight parallel-switched series of three and achieve a luminous flux of up to 230 lm. The benefit of multi-chip LEDs, compared with the large-scale single-chip LEDs with approximately the same luminous flux, lies in their homogeneous distribution of heat.

The colour temperature of the three white light LED lighting modules lies in the range of 2,700 to 5,000 Kelvin with the shades ‘Warm White’ and ‘Pure White’. The models of the ‘MiniZeni’ series have a substantially improved CRI value of 87, thanks to various phosphorous mixtures, and thus ensure colour fastness and attention to detail.

Cree: announce the commercial availability of the award-winning XLamp XP-G LED in warm- and neutral-white colour temperatures (2600K to 5000K CCT). These new XP-G LEDs shown in figure 3 extended Cree’s highest level of light output and efficacy across the white colour spectrum, driving general lighting applications such as LED replacement lamps, outdoor area and commercial luminaires. The warm white (3000K) XP-G provided up to 114 lumens and 109 lumens per watt at 350mA. Driven at 1.0A, the XP-G warm-white produces up to 285 lumens at 84 lumens per watt, which is four times the light output than the highest available XR-E warm-white LED at equal efficacy.
The neutral-white (4000K) XP-G provided up to 139 lumens and 132 lumens per watt at 350mA. Driven at 1.5A, the XP-G neutral-white produces up to 463 lumens, which is four times the light output of the XR-E cool-white LED at equal efficacy.

Cree also expand its family of high-power colour LEDs with the availability of XP-C colour LEDs in royal blue, blue, green, amber, red-orange and red. These new XP-C LEDs are 10-to-50 percent brighter than Cree’s previous midrange colour LEDs. The XP-C colour LEDs are designed for 0.5 watt to 1 watt operation.

Epistar: announces it has successfully developed its PX series of AlGaInP LEDs with record-breaking efficacy of 133lm/W driven at 20mA, while the power chip in the same series reaches 110lm/W at 350mA. This outstanding performance makes the small chip a preferred choice for outdoor display and RGB Backlighting applications whilst the power chip, with its good CRI and high efficacy, becomes an excellent solution for warm white lighting.

Bridgelux: The Bridgelux Array platforms are demonstrated within the Helieon module designed for high light output applications including retail, street, wide area, high bay, and commercial lighting. The Helieon lighting system is the first plug-and-play, sustainable solid state lighting module to integrate high-efficiency precision lighting with an easy-to-use socketed solution to accelerate innovation and enable the mass adoption of solid state lighting. The Bridgelux arrays are used by Manor Group to replace 50W halogen light sources in their Zurich store whilst reducing energy consumption by over 50%.

The Heieon modules offer uniform high-quality illumination with beam control optics (24, 32 and 50 degree options), High system efficacy enabling luminaires with operating efficiencies of >50lm/W and colour control to a single 3-step MacAdams ellipse.

Cree: announces a breakthrough new lighting-class LED platform, the XM LED. This new single chip LED delivers record-breaking efficacy of 160 lumens per watt at 350mA. The LED also delivers 750 lumens at 2A, which is equivalent to the light output of a 60W incandescent light bulb at less than 7 watts. The thermal resistance of the XM platform is 2°C per watt — an industry-leading technology breakthrough and a 350 percent improvement over Cree’s flagship XP-E LEDs.

Seoul Semiconductor: exhibits the latest Acriche A4 at Light+Building that has a luminous flux of 83 at a power of 0.83W and a CCT of 6300K providing a 100 lm/W efficacy. The new Acriche A4 uses a different type of manufacturing process from previous A3 emitters and overcomes many of the issues including dimming with earlier products making the technology much more efficient and useful in real applications. The A4 is very compact in size with a footprint of 7mm x 7mm x 3mm. The warm white version of the A4 has a typical CRI of 85 at a CCT of 3000K with a typical 50 lumen output at a power of 0.76W providing 66lm/W efficacy.

In addition, Seoul Semi launches the A6, a 1W and the A7 a 4W Acriche emitter both in a small footprint compared to the previous generation of 1W and 4W emitters. The A6 and A7 will use the new production process that enables the die to be reduced down so the A7, at 8x8 mm, offers space-saving versatility over current 18x12mm Acriche products.

Philips Lumileds: announces it is entering the AC LEDs world with the launch of the Luxeon Rebel AC which will be in full production by the end of 2010. This is a radical departure for Lumileds who created the original high power DC LED die that has revolutionised LED lighting. However, a key advantage of the new AC LED is that it is in the same Rebel form factor and package architecture ensuring the thermal management is of high quality.

Philips Lumileds states that it has an advantage over its main AC LED competitors because of the die architecture it uses as shown in figure 4. The Rebel AC uses one large die which is in a flip chip format so there are no bond wires required and is directly mounted on a ceramic/silicon submount rather than a sapphire substrate thus improving performance.

Philips Lumileds also announce the new Rebel ES range available initially in Cool and Neutral White CCT’s with a minimum lumens per watt efficacy of 120lm/W producing 120 lumens at 350mA and 108 lm/W with 225 lumens at 700mA. The interesting aspects of the new ES range is it has a much lower forward voltage than most white LEDs and the typical voltage at 350mA was 2.85V rather than the 3.15V. At launch time the efficacy has increased to 125lm/W for Neutral and 130lm/W for Cool white LEDs.

Philips Lumileds also announce the new Rebel ES range available initially in Cool and Neutral White CCT’s with a minimum lumens per watt efficacy of 120 lm/W producing 120 lumens at 350mA and 108 lm/W with 225 lumens at 700mA. The interesting aspects of the new ES range was it has a much lower forward voltage than most white LEDs and the typical voltage at 350mA was 2.85V rather than 3.15V. At launch time the efficacy has increased to 125lm/W for Neutral and 130lm/W for cool white LEDs.

Sharp: supplements its LED lighting portfolio with three new white ‘high colour rendering’, high-performance LED additions. The high colour rendering LEDs reach the high CRI value of 85 through the combination of blue LEDs with a special blend of green and red phosphorous to deliver of up to 54 lumens in a 0.8W package. The SMD LEDs from the new GM2BBxxBM0C series ensure high colour fastness with typical applications for high colour rendering LEDs including photography, retail lighting and in medical applications.

As different applications also require different lighting concepts, the ‘DoubleDome’ series is available in three different Colour Temperatures, starting with ‘Warm White’ at 3000K, and ‘Natural White’ with 4000K to ‘Pure White’ with 5000K. In combination with the high CRI values, the new LEDs from Sharp are approximately equivalent to conventional fluorescent tubes with regard to their efficiency, colour temperature and colour rendering index (CRI). Sharp’s ‘Double Dome’ LEDs, are compact in a package only 2.8 x 2.8 x 1.9mm in size.

With such a high CRI the 3000K LED provides approximately 58 lumens per watt, the 4000K approximately 60 lm/W and the 5000K approximately 64 lm/W.

Verbatim & Mitsubishi Chemical: announce the development of a new generation of LEDs, planned for 2011, that utilises a violet light emitting chip with red, green and blue phosphors. These products, also in warm white, will offer further improvements in CRI with a typical average value of 98 providing an industry leading figure. A further advantage of using a violet LED with 3-part phosphor is the lighting fixtures can be made colour tunable with a high CRI from 2700K to 5500K without significant loss of lumens per watt across the colour temperature range.

Interestingly, violet LEDs with multipart phosphors do not require binning because the output is not dependant upon the wavelength variations of the LED as found with standard Blue LEDs with yellow YAG phosphors.

Providing these new violet based LEDs come to market with efficacies between 60lm/W and 70lm/W in 2011, they could provide a compelling offer although violet LEDs have never managed to break through into the marketplace.

Verbatim also announce it will launch an OLED offering in 2011 based on a solid-state semiconductor device composed of ultra thin films of organic molecules that create light. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (MCC) decide to use the unique qualities of OLEDs, integrating them into printable hole injecting material (HIM) with newly researched light emitting technology. This allows the mass production of the world’s largest class of OLED lighting area, about 14cm square.
Lighting fixtures based upon MCC OLED technology will offer high quality colour lighting with dimming and full colour tuning capabilities. Verbatim demonstrate a variety of quality OLED products at Light+Building as shown in figure 6 with impressive features such as the size and colour consistency of the panels. Verbatim have partnered with another leading Japanese brand, Pioneer, on OLED production.

OSRAM: demonstrate their OLED offering in the form of the Orbeos panel shown in figure 7 offering a thin (2.1mm), 79mm diameter warm white (2800K) light source with a CRI of 75 and an efficacy of 23 lm/W. A maximum luminance of 1000cd/m2 is achieved at 186mA forward current providing a lifetime of 5,000 hours.

Novaled: demonstrate a complete booth at Light and Building of OLED type fixtures and light engines providing a very high quality light with a CRI of up to 95. A range of OLED lighting from warm white to clear cold white was also exhibited including colours such as deep orange, rich red and intense blue. Colour tunable OLEDs that cover a broad span of colours from light blue through clear white and all the way to orange are also launched.

The OLED devices which are manufactured on glass and metal substrates, are extremely thin, lightweight and come in various sizes from 25cm2 up to 225cm2 active area. Depending on the substrate material and device structure chosen, OLEDs can be transparent, have a diffuse appearance or behave like a mirror in the off state.
For Novaled’s commercially available OLEDs (up to 15x15 cm active area) they currently confirm around 20 lm/W efficacy.

GE: show off their latest OLED panels that are 75mm x 150mm in size and offer 28 to 30 lumens per watt in high CRI and various CCT versions. The research and development partnership between GE and Konika Minolta seem to be bearing fruit as 30 lumens per watt is a step further than most OLED manufacturers can achieve. GE believes that they will have a significant lead compared to other OLED entrants as they will produce the OLED panels on a roll-to-roll process similar to newspaper printing which will enable them to produce high performance, low cost devices when commercialisation starts next year. Most of the other manufacturers of OLED panels are produced using a different technique which spins or vacuum coats a glass or plastic plate which is more expensive and time consuming to produce.

The battle of the LED retrofit bulb begins
A real battle begins during Light+Building with the LED retrofit bulb sector becoming a hugely congested one. As described on many occasions, LED retrofit bulbs are very difficult to manufacture reliably because they have a limited space envelop in which to dissipate heat and that usually translates to poor optical performance compared to traditional light sources and decreased reliability because of high driver temperatures (one reason why AC LEDs may dominate the retrofit sector). However, the battle lines are being drawn between traditional lighting companies like GE, Philips and OSRAM and new global brands including Panasonic, Toshiba and Verbatim as well as smaller LED companies such as Lighting Science Group.

Verbatim: their first family of lamps based on a blue light-emitting chip LED technology are available in cool and warm white, and have a typical colour rendering index (CRI) similar to that of other products. The next generation of lamps, planned for 2011, will use a violet light emitting chip with red, green and blue phosphors. These products, also in warm white, will offer further improvements in CRI with a typical average value of 98.
Toshiba: officially enters the European lighting market with the launch of the E-Core LED product line, consisting of lamps and a high-efficiency LED downlight fixture line. The lamp line, which includes six reflector lamps in three colours and two A19 bulbs in two colours, features high brightness and energy efficiency in compact designs. The downlight line includes six models available in four colours, in which the brightest model reaches a luminous flux of 1250 lumens.

Toshiba also demonstrates several technology prototypes including LED bulbs with a 1690 lumens performance and a 260-degree lighting angle, and GX53 self-contained round units with a total luminous flux of 2000 lumens.

The LED retrofit bulbs, shown in figure 8, are offered in a variety of lumen outputs however the 2700K 9W lamp offered 600 lumens providing an impressive efficacy of 67 lm/W whilst the 4000K 9W version provided 78lm/W. More impressively is that these total flux measurements were taken after the light bulbs had been switched on and off 40,000 hours. The LED light bulbs also have a minimum 80 CRI.

Panasonic: launches its LED bulb retrofit range with high efficacies. The LED bulb LDA7L-A1 is 107mm long and 55mm in diameter with a CCT of 2700K and up to 40,000 hours lifetime. The bulb produces 360 lumens by using only 7W of power to give 51 lm/W efficacy whilst the 6700K version produces 460 lumens or 66lm/W.

In addition to the LED light bulb replacement, Panasonic launches its GU5.3 and GU10 LED retrofits. The warm white MR16 version has a 2700K CCT and provides 150 lumens in only 4W providing 37.5 lm/W increasing to 50lm/W for the 3000K version. Panasonic states that lifetimes for the MR16 range is 25,000 hours.

GE: launches its LED GLS Lamp consuming only 9 Watts of power and providing a true 360 degrees of light output mimicking a standard 40W lamp. The new light bulb was in US stores from August and the LED bulb produced 450 lumens for a total of 77 percent in energy savings. Unfortunately, the price looks to be in the $40 to $50 range and provides 25,000 hours of light. GE are using the Cree-XPG LED emitter in the new lamp.

Lighting Science Group: announce the DEFINITY line, a 9 watt LED A19 bulb that will retail in the low $20 range (~£13) and is a direct replacement for 40 watt incandescent bulbs. The DEFINITY LED bulb provides a stunning 770 lumen output which is 80% more efficient than a 40 watt incandescent bulb, will last close to 23 years and provides 85.5 lm/W in warm white variants. This new LED bulb seems to be a significant step ahead of the competition in both technical and commercial offerings and this has been validated by the largest home retailer in the USA, Home Depot, that has already launched it across the USA.

Philips: demonstrate the Endura LED retrofit lamps, see figure 9, providing up to 806 lumens in a 12.5W package (~64lm/W) equivalent to a 60W lamp. In addition, the use of a new design and remote phosphor technology delivers the same soft white light and shape consumers are familiar with in an incandescent and it will work with standard dimmers. It has a CCT of 2700K and a CRI of 80 and its average life is listed at 25,000 hours. The EnduraLED is available at the end of 2010 and it is rumoured to retail at Home Depot at $39.97.

Cree: launch a new high-performance BR30 retrofit lamp, the LBR-30 aimed at replacing energy-wasting incandescent lamps commonly used in tracks, commercial and residential recessed downlights. The new lamp delivers 600 lumens with flood or wide flood distributions, while only consuming 11 watts.

Cree also increase the performance of its LRP-3 LED lamp. A narrow beam spotlight with tens of thousands of units installed in offices, retail, grocery stores and museums across North America, the LRP-38 delivers exceptional colour quality and is designed to last 50,000 hours. The enhanced LRP-38 has received a 20 percent boost in performance, and a 30 percent increase in overall efficacy, enabling replacement of 75 Watt incandescent lamps while consuming 85 percent less energy. Lumen output has increased to 600 lumens, while input power has been decreased to 11 watts.

Luminus Devices: announce the introduction of the SBT-90 PhlatLight LED, the industry’s brightest, high power, surface-mount (SMT) package. This breakthrough product is ideally suited for entertainment, display, medical and automotive applications that require an LED package that emits directly into air instead of having an integrated dome lens.

The SBT-90 contains a single 9mm2 chip, so the optical brightness can’t be matched by tiled arrays of traditional 1 watt LEDs. The ability to deliver more lumens through their optical architectures in a compact and highly integrated form factor becomes a game changer as new opportunities emerge to apply LEDs to demanding applications.

The SBT-90 generates more than 1,800 lumens (6500K, 70+CRI) from a small 10mm x 11mm package footprint. Utilising high thermal conductivity ceramic packaging, the SBT-90 features an extremely low thermal resistance of 0.64°C/W. The device has a nominal input power of 10W, but can be operated continuously at drive conditions up to 35W.

Due to its low profile window and direct chip-to-air emission, the SBT-90 is optimised for coupling to proximity optics and optical light engines, thereby maximising optical throughput while maintaining long life and high reliability. Typical applications for the SBT-90 include entertainment wash lighting, edge-lit displays, projection systems, fibre coupled medical lighting and automotive forward lighting.
Available in an SMT package, the SBT-90 integrates seamlessly with standard SMT manufacturing processes and equipment. PhlatLight LEDs are mercury-free, highly reliable and provide a lifetime of 60,000 hours with lumen maintenance of greater than 70 percent.

OSRAM: introduces the new OSTAR with more light output, in a mere 3.9 mm x 3.6mm package. Instead of 4A, the new LED array can now be pulsed with 6A, and it achieves 350lm in amber, 600lm in green and 165lm in blue in pulsed mode (typically 120Hz, 2ms, Ts= 25°C). Thanks to a new package material its thermal resistance has been reduced to 3k/W and the enhanced performance is achieved by a 2mm2 chip that benefits from improved epitaxy processes and even power distribution via additional bond wires.

OSRAM: succeed in increasing the efficiency of red thin-film LEDs by 30% – a new record. The record efficiency for an LED of 119lm/W at an operating current of 350mA (136lm/W at 70mA) as shown in figure 10 had been achieved by the latest generation of a red 1mm2 thin-film chip (InGaAlP). The chip was accommodated in a Golden Dragon Plus package and emitted at a wavelength of 615 nm. Its efficiency has been measured at 44% (49% at 70mA), and even exceeds 50% for a wavelength of 642nm.

Cree: take leadership position in the LED industry with the addition of the industry’s smallest warm and neutral bins to its award-winning multichip XLamp MP-L and MC-E EasyWhite LEDs. The breakthrough offers a single two-step MacAdams ellipse bin per colour temperature, optimised to achieve incandescent-like colour consistency and eliminating the need to purchase multiple small bins and perform complex colour mixing.

ENFIS: exhibit their latest range of UNO Plus Products complete with drivers, optics and thermal management at the Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition.

Following an increasing trend of colour tuneable lighting fixtures ENFIS launch a high-quality, tuneable, efficient, LED light engine range suitable for integration into smaller standard fixture sizes such as AR111 or AR70 as well as spotlights and downlighters.

The 40W modules are available in the following versions:
•    High CRI tuneable: >90 CRI from 3000K to 6000K
•    Warm white tuneable: 1800K  to 4100K
•    RGBW: 3000K - 6500K + full RGB

Philips Lumileds: announce their Lumiramic phosphor technology combined with the new LUXEON Rebel ES parts provide exceptionally small colour variation for new white LEDs. The overall distribution of the manufactured LED product is significantly smaller than was previously possible or is possible with other solutions as shown in figure 11.
With over 80% of the emitter production falling within a 3 MacAdam ellipse area within the ANSI bin space, luminaire design is simplified, unit-to-unit consistency is reality, and the supply chain is more certain and reliable

Philips Lumileds also announce that it has achieved its billionth LUXEON power LED. The company’s capacity and infrastructure investments over the last several years have enabled it to meet customer needs for high volumes of products, with the company delivering over 750 million LUXEON power LEDs in the past two years to automotive, illumination and consumer electronics customers.

Epistar: announce it has developed a High-Voltage (HV) LED chip that enables 135lm/W white LED at 1W operation in colour temperature of 5000K. It has developed a High-Voltage monolithically integrated DC multiple-chip array to significantly improve current spreading. Consequently, much lower forward voltage and higher Wall Plug Efficiency (WPE) are achieved at 5.5W operation as compared to normal single power chips.

Cree: announce commercial availability of the new 100+ lumen XLamp MX-3 LED. The MX-3 LED extends Cree’s lighting-class performance to a broader set of applications with enhanced light uniformity and LED-to-LED colour consistency. The MX-3 offers design simplicity and flexibility, sharing a common footprint with Cree’s XLamp MX-6 LED, and is ideal for LED bulbs, retail display lighting and high-flux distributed illumination such as cove lighting and wall washing.

Seoul Semiconductor: take third place in the LED manufacturers market share with 5.7% of the global white LED market following the leader Nichia with 32.0% and OSRAM OptoSemiconductor with 7.9%.

OLEDs: The OLED summit demonstrates the roadmaps of efficiency and lifetime moving forward on various substrates such as glass as shown in table 1.

Nichia: this month sees the publishing of recent results from Nichia that has produced a small-sized white LED driven at 20mA producing 14.4 lumens at a CCT of 4600K providing an enhanced efficiency of 249lm/W or 58.5% wall plug efficiency.

In addition a single chip, high-power white LED has been significantly enhanced, to achieve 203 lumens at 350mA with an efficacy of 183lm/W for a CCT of 4700K and a wall plug efficiency of 48.3%. The reason these figures are so impressive compared to say Cree, Philips Lumileds or OSRAM’s current high brightness LED emitters is that the Nichia results are based on a 1mm by 1mm LED die. To put this result into perspective the LED driven at 1A produced 511 lumens with an efficacy of 130lm/W which is equivalent to a 40W-class incandescent lamp or 1.5 times that of a tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp.

Finally, the Nichia group fabricate an ultra-high power white LED emitter by connecting four LED dies in series. This produces an LED emitter that delivers 1913 lumens at 1A with an efficacy of 135lm/W at a CCT of 4700K and a wall plug efficiency of 37.1%. This single emitter had a lumen output higher than that of a 20W-class fluorescent lamp and was 1.5 times more efficient than that of a tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp. Thus, a one-package LED can replace a traditional fluorescent lamp.

Cree: raises the standard for half-watt LED devices with the commercial availability of its XLamp ML-E LED. The lighting-class XLamp ML-E provides lighting designers with a compact and cost-effective solution for distributed LED arrays. The XLamp ML-E delivers lighting-class performance in a small, affordable package with luminous flux of up to 58 lm at 150 mA in cool white (5000 K) and up to 48 lm in warm white (3000 K).

Philips Lumileds: announces that it has increased the light output specifications and top performance bins for virtually every colour of LUXEON Rebel LED manufactured. In addition, significantly lower forward voltage for red and red-orange emitters results in very high efficacy LEDs which is critical as lighting engineers strive to reduce luminaire energy consumption.

OSRAM: introduce small colour light emitting diodes. The powerful 1W LED were available in a range of colours - deep blue, true green, amber, red and hyper red, each offering top performance from a small package thanks to the latest chip technology. Typical brightness is 480 mW (deep blue) and 92 lm (true green) at an operating current of 350 mA and 70 lm (amber), 55 lm (red) and 320 mW (hyper red) at an operating current of 400 mA. Like their white counterparts these powerful LEDs are very small (only 3 x 3 mm) and have a narrow beam angle of 80°. The same low thermal resistance of 7 K/W makes thermal management much easier.

IST: launch the world’s first Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based LED drivers offering high efficiency, long life (no electrolytic capacitors on the output stages) and truly configurable LED power configuration independently on each output. Utilising the Texas Instruments high speed Picollo DSP series the new LED drivers can measure the forward current and LED voltage of any connected array in real-time enabling active dynamic power control. With dynamic power control technology LED power can be shared across multiple LED outputs and instead of power being wasted where it is not used it can be directed to channels where more power is demanded.  The first product launched with the eco-DSP platform is the iDrive Force containing 24 independent channels with programmable currents up to 1A per channel and Vf voltages up to 48V. The Force-24 offers the highest power density LED driver in the world with over 634W contained in a 1U 19” rack and is controlled by a DMX/RDM protocol. The system offers an efficacy of over 98% at the DC/DC level with the DSP enabling exceptionally smooth stepless dimming performance.

The incandescent lamp is on its way out!
On 1st September the second stage of the phase-out came into affect: since last year it has no longer been allowed to market matt or 100W light bulbs, now the same applies to 75W versions.

Epistar: announce the successful development of a new generation of Aquarius-series AlGaInP LEDs emitting at an efficacy 26 percent higher than the previously announced March. The record was set by the 14x14 mm2 chip in the new generation of Aquarius-series chips. This chip reaches 168lm/W at a dominant wavelength of 610 nm driven by 20mA current (180lm/W at 6mA). Applying Epistar’s novel light-extracting technology, the new Lambertian transmission has been demonstrated to increase the efficacy from 133lm/W to 168lm/W.

Cree: extends its lighting-class LED leadership into high-voltage LEDs with the commercial availability of new XLamp MX-6S and MX-3S LEDs. With the same footprint and high-quality performance as the XLamp MX-6 and MX-3 LEDs, the MX-6S and MX-3S LEDs offer new high-voltage configurations designed for space-constrained LED lamps and bulbs. For these applications, high-voltage LEDs can be used to achieve smaller, more-efficient power supplies and thermal systems.
The XLamp MX-6S LED as shown in figure 12 delivers luminous flux of up to 139 lumens at 60mA/20 V in 6000 K and 114 lumens in 3000K. The XLamp MX-3S LED provides up to 122 lumens at 115mA/10.7 V in 6000K and 100 lumens in 3000K. The MX series LEDs deliver lighting-class performance for high-voltage LEDs, including high reliability, high efficacy and industry-leading colour consistency.

Philips Lumileds: announces that it has added a new 4000K CCT ANSI binned part to its award winning LUXEON Rebel product portfolio and raised the top flux bin for its cool and neutral white LUXEON Rebel by 20%. The new part delivers improved colour rendering and tight binning. In addition, flux bin increases for cool and neutral white LUXEON Rebel parts to a minimum 120 lumen flux bin at 350mA as shown in table 2.

Bridgelux: introduce a 5-year warranty on all of the company’s integrated LED arrays and light sources sold worldwide. This unprecedented move boosts standard 1-year and 3-year warranties to deliver industry-leading 5-year warranty protection, emphatically demonstrating Bridgelux’s confidence in LED technology while providing customers the assurances needed.

OSRAM: add the OSLON Black Series to its successful OSLON family. The first member of the new series has a metal lead frame, a compact package and a tried and tested lens design. The OSLON Black Series has a lens with a 90° beam angle and produces a typical brightness of 115lm at an operating current of 350mA and a colour temperature of 6500K. By increasing the operating current to 1A it is operating to achieve a brightness of 250lm. The LED uses a 1mm2 chip and is available in all colours including warm white.

OSRAM introduce the new OSLON SSL 150 with a wide beam of 150 degrees this new LED enables the light to be used in reflector systems with much lower light losses enabling LED lamps and luminaires designed with OSLON SSL 150 to be more efficient. In reflector applications for example, the luminaire efficiency can be increased by more than 5 percent. The reflectors can also be low-profile and the luminaire itself needs only a shallow mounting depth.

The OSLON SSL 150 is also ideal for other applications such as diffused lighting in suspended ceilings and for wide-area backlighting with no obvious spots of light.

Additionally, uniform illumination of the diffuser is possible in retrofits that aim to simulate incandescent or halogen light.

Colour mixing is also easier than ever as the LED colours can be mixed at the reflector level. The LED is based on a 1mm2 chip, providing a typical brightness of 92 lm at 3000 K at an operating current of 350mA and 156 lm at 700mA. It is available in all white tones (2700-6500K) and in different colours. The OSLON SSL 150 fits neatly into the portfolio with its dimensions of 3 mm x 3 mm as shown in figure 13.

Citizen: develop the CL-L330 series (26W type) and CL-L340 series (41W type) of white LED Arrays for lighting applications featuring the world’s highest level of luminous flux with astounding lumens efficacy between 73 and 104lm/W. The newly developed products (see figure 14) resolve the issues that some outdoor lighting and indoor LED equivalents for HID lamp sources require high lumen output LEDs within a miniaturised space with simplified optical design. Four models are available covering 5000K and  3000K both at 26W and 41W consumption as shown in tables 3 and 4.

The CRI for the 3000K products are typically 83 and the thermal resistance for the 26W is 1.7C/W and 1C/W for the 42W arrays. Stunning performance like this, LED arrays will start to offer LED fixture manufacturers an improved route for LED downlights and streetlights.

OSRAM: announce the OSTAR Lighting Plus providing a large amount of light from a small area. With its impressive brightness and colour stability this high-power LED can be used without any problems in retrofits for incandescent lamps or halogen lamps. It contains four chips fabricated in state-of-the-art UX:3 chip technology and emits either cold white or warm white light.

The LED shown in figure 15 has an impressive brightness of 425 lm (5700 K to 6500 K) or 365 lm (2700 K to 4000 K) at an operating current of 350 mA. This corresponds to a typical efficiency of around 100 lm/W or around 80 lm/W.

With a power draw of less than 5 W the warm white OSTAR version produces 365 lm – and from only four chips. Only four OSTAR Lighting Plus units are needed to replace a frosted 100 W incandescent lamp with a colour rendering index of 80.

Nichia: announce the release of a new line of high power point source white LEDs that drives the cutting edge technology of power LEDs to a new level. Code named under Nichia part number ‘NVSx219A’, or ‘Nichia 219’, the white LED offers typical 140 lumen output at 1W input power with 5000K colour temperature. Using a uniformly phosphor coated chip, Nichia 219 has the industry leading source brightness and tightest optical footprint. The spatial colour uniformity is also optimised with Nichia’s leading phosphor technology. At 350mA drive current, the typical forward voltage is only 3.0V. Additionally, this package is capable of drive currents up to 1.5A generating close to 475 lumens.
To make Nichia 219 user friendly, Nichia has incorporated an electrically isolated heat sink in the LED design, and lowered the junction to board thermal resistance, while minimizing the package size to a mere 3.5mm x 3.5mm. The driver also offers very good hot lumens performance with junction temperature >60C resulting in less than 7% thermal degradation compared to performance at 25°C.

Everlight: expands its LED portfolio and introduces the ‘Yi’ Series – a high power, high brightness and economic (superb $/lm) LED family with 5W power consumption.

The Yi LED shown in figure 16 is a 4-chip device with very low thermal resistance as a result of the ceramic substrate. The series is a surface-mount high-power device featuring high brightness combined with a compact size (6x6x4.28mm) that is suitable for all kinds of lighting applications such as general illumination, indoor and outdoor lighting, retrofit bulbs, decoration, entertainment lighting, commercial lighting and automotive illumination. With the capability of 700mA driving currents, the Yi family can be driven up to 5 watts. The minimum luminous flux (lm) of the 5W Yi can be up to 400 lm at 6500K(CCT) or 325 lm at 3000K(CCT) when driven with 700mA current.

Cree: adds 80, 85 and 90 colour rendering index (CRI) options to its XLamp XP-G and XP-E warm-white LEDs. Many lighting applications, such as retail, medical and architectural, require high colour accuracy to properly render object colours. With previous-generation high-CRI white LEDs, increasing colour quality meant decreasing efficacy; now, thanks to the new high-CRI XP-G and XP-E, luminaire and fixture designers can have both. The new high-CRI XP-G is available with luminous flux of up to 107 lumens at 350mA in warm white (3000 K), providing efficacy of 102 lumens per watt. Figure 17 shows the wavelength characteristics of the new high-CRI XP-G LEDs with the RED and Green content increasing with higher CRI.

Cree announce the commercial availability of new levels of performance for XLamp XP-E & XP-C Colour LEDs. The XLamp XP-E Colour LEDs are now available delivering minimum light output of 500 mW for Royal Blue, 39.8 lumens for Blue, 107 lumens for Green, 73.9 lumens for Red-Orange, and 62.0 lumens for Red, all at 350 mA. XLamp XP-C Colour LEDs are now available delivering minimum light output of 350 mW for Royal Blue, 23.5 lumens for Blue, 62 lumens for Red-Orange and 51.7 lumens for Red, all at 350 mA.

Cree also announces the commercial availability of the XLamp XM-L LED, the industry’s brightest, highest-performance lighting-class LEDs. The cool white (6500K) XLamp XM-L LEDs deliver 1000 lumens with 100 lumens per watt efficacy at 3A. In a compact 5mm x 5mm footprint, XM-L LEDs offer the unique combination of very high efficacy at very high drive currents, delivering light output and efficacy of 160 lumens per watt at 350mA and up to 315 lumens and 150 lumens per watt at 700mA.

Epistar: unveil its breakthrough High-Voltage (HV) LED chip that enable the 5000K cold white LED to reach 162lm/W. The record high luminous of 162lm/W is operated under 5000K of cold white and a Vf of 47Vdc at 20mA condition with a 45mil InGaN HV-LED.

Xicato: launches the Xicato Linear Module. Its dimensions and lumen packages open up downlighting, wallwash, uplighting  and high AF spot applications. The XLM offers 2200lm at 55lm/W (to be followed by a 3000lm version early in 2011) and has the same specification as the established Xicato spot module range with its fully sealed, IP 66 housing (aluminium and glass) using its corrected cold phosphor technology to provide a perfectly uniform and natural light with a sustained, industry best, colour point stability and high colour rendering.

IST: launches the 120W 4 channel iDrive-QUAD based upon its eco-DSP driver technology. The QUAD offers up to 48Vdc and 1A on each channel and can be controlled using DMX and RDM commands to provide live LED fixture status feedback such as forward voltage, current and temperature to an RDM complaint controller. The LED driver features a 16x2 back lit LCD display to enable installers a quick and easy method for rapid installation. A unique standby mode shuts down part of the LED driver when it is not being used to draw as little as 1W providing a unique energy conscious installation.

Final Observations -
What to expect in 2011

Roger Sexton, Xicato suggests the following:
•    Xicato anticipates more entrants in the ‘module’ segment of the market, and also greater emphasis placed on lumen and colour maintenance following  awareness of LM-80 testing protocols. Hampering independent measurement of LED sources, unfortunately, is the lack of qualified test laboratories.

•    On the performance front, higher efficacies and outputs will ensure first genuine usage in professional applications like offices. Increased awareness of the availability of warm, high colour quality light will ensure the further penetration of LEDs into demanding applications such as museums, boutique retail, high-end residential.

Dr. Markus Klein, Senior Director SSL at OSRAM Opto Semiconductors:
•    With light becoming digital at almost the speed of light, the spotlight in the LED world is moving fast. LED applications increasingly interact with their environment through sensors, networks and protocols as part of the electronic system. This ongoing development has led to the fact that LEDs have became part of our digital world and lifestyle.

•    In the early years, when LED developed from pure indicator functions to SSL applications, energy efficiency and durability were the major drivers behind the LED development. And indeed LEDs have been and are still setting new standards when it comes to ecological and economical sustainability. But this is not enough to legitimise the investments in a new technology on the customers’ side. With LED becoming a real alternative to conventional light systems in general lighting, the focus is widening. Application features and costs have entered the spotlight. Customers want to know the total cost of ownership of a LED system, not only the retail price. They want reliable answers on the true lifetime costs, including maintenance, electricity and additional functions. The second trend is about additional features. Our customers expect not only a new technology but they demand new functionalities, with lower costs and truly innovative features, all of this in a standardised, simple and easy-to-deploy environment. Applicability also means that we have to work on beautifying our still very technical-looking products and therefore focus increasingly on design aspects. Moreover it is important to further enhance safety and reliability in any application. And last but not least we need to work on making LED applications easier.

Norbert Hiller, Cree General Manager, LED components:
•    Cree expects that 2011 will reveal a continued focus on performance improvements, which reduces cost of ownership to enable and accelerate LED lighting adoption. Increasing the scale of high performance LED production as well as the production of LEDs on larger wafers will drive costs down. At the same time we will also continue to optimise LED products for specific application requirements.

Elliet Hall-Jones, Business Development Director, IST Limited
• I expect 2011 to be a year where the adoption of LED fixtures within the marketplace will be defined into two distinct market sectors; low cost commodity products and high quality direct replacement and feature rich products. I see the commodity market being dominated by the Asian manufacturers and direct replacement being dominated by western lighting companies with a greater focus on the quality and control of light being the differentiator.

• In terms of LED drivers, I see a trend being towards companies understanding the need for high efficiency and lower power correction of drivers. Also the need to integrate existing control protocol such as Dali, 1-10V, RDM & DMX. I also see the supply of LED drivers being more critical as a number of driver manufacturers have increased the lead-time this year as a result of extended lead-times of components. Of course the pressure will also be on to reduce the cost of LED drivers. As a result I see two distinct products emerging: a low cost standard driver and a high end feature rich product. I believe that both of these markets could be met by the adoption of digital signal processors where each individual driver can be programmed to the exact customer requirements, while utilising the standard components used on the driver.

• Also with LED drivers I see a trend towards cost erosion as volumes increase especially in the white light market. However, the market will be looking for feature rich products at competitive prices. The only way to supply the demand will be to reduce components and maintain electronic design flexibility to cater for all the new LED emitter variants and this is where I believe using digital signal processing will start to lead the LED driver market as it reduces the need for IC specific drivers and is software configurable so can enable drivers to be updated in the field.

• 2011 will see advanced LED drivers come to market combining several control protocols such as 0-10V, DALI, DMX, RDM in a low cost format enabling the lighting designers to provide advanced scene setting.

• Finally, the battle over which future protocol platform will start to emerge, whether its wireless such as Zigbee or Power Line Control, for the control of the next generation of LED fixtures.

Wow! What a year 2010 has been for the lighting industry! New LED product launches, advances in driver technology and record LED efficacies being shattered every few months.

At the start of the year (but only published in August) the Nichia R&D white LEDs offered tremendous lumens per watt efficacy of up to 249 lm/W or 58.5% total wall plug efficiency which is incredible considering the results are based on standard LED die sizes and not the larger dies found in the XM-L, XP-G models and Rebel-ES production models.

Even so the impressive production launch credentials of a >100lm/W warm white high-CRI Cree XP-G LED shows how quickly the LED emitter market is maturing. All LED manufacturers are now on board with what the LED design community has been looking for from LEDs: high brightness, high efficiency and excellent quality of light.

I predict in 2011 there will be a much more rapid reduction of LED fixture prices than seen previously with UK manufacturers looking to source quality LEDs from reputable top five LED manufacturers via Asian where for some reason the same LED emitters can be up to 60% lower cost than if sourced in Europe. These cost reductions can then be passed onto customers who will in turn embrace LEDs as the return on investment criteria also reduces drastically.

I also predict that we may see the first production 200lm/W LED emitter enter the marketplace leading to a gradual slow down of the fast paced LED efficacy race. This could mean by the end of 2011 we may see a price of US$1 per 200 lumens cost for warm-white high CRI LEDs.

Last year I predicted a whole raft of colour tuneable white light products would enter the market. However the number was greatly reduced and limited to several notable companies such as LG. The barrier for these devices may be the extra complexity of the control electronics required to keep the colour stable. However, that may change with new low-cost LED driver components entering the market in 2011.

One of the main barriers to LEDs during 2011 will be the economic situation and how Europe will handle the fall-out from collapsed members of the EU such as Greece, Spain, Ireland and Portugal.

Government policies will play a big factor in how LED technology growth will accelerate during 2011 but if economies do fall there will be less money to spend on infrastructure!

Help reduce VAT on energy efficient lighting
Finally, the start of 2011 will see an increase in the rate of VAT in the UK to 20% and I agree with David Morban from Morban Ltd who emailed me stating that LED and other energy efficient lighting technologies should have the VAT brought in line with other carbon reduction technologies which is presently at 5%.

I believe reducing the VAT rate for LED and other SSL technologies down to 5% would help stimulate a growing, high technology sector of the UK economy, create new jobs and would also accelerate the adoption of energy efficient lighting with end users thus mitigating increasing energy usage and helping to reduce the UK’s carbon footprint.

If you feel the same then please sign up to the reduce lighting VAT petition at:  and I will do my best to present the lighting community’s voice to MPs, the Treasury and ministers in the UK government.

Have a great festive holiday and a happy New Year. Don’t forget you can email me anytime you have a question relating to SSL.


Dr Geoff Archenhold

  • Figure 1: Bridgelux RS and LS high power LED arrays

  • Figure 2: Schematic of Xicato's proprietary module technology

  • Figure 3: Cree's XP-G Neutral White LED

  • Figure 4: Luxeon's Rebel AC Advantage LED

  • Figure 5: The Everlight 3W Shuen LED

  • Figure 6: The new OLED lighting panels from Verbatim

  • Figure 7: OSRAM's Orbeous OLED lighting panel

  • Figure 8: Toshiba's E-core LED bulb

  • Figure 9: Philips' Endura 60W LED light bulb equivalent

  • Figure 10: OSRAM's record red LED in July

  • Figure 11: The Philips Lumileds Rebel production yield for tighter binning (red is new binning and blue previous binning process yields

  • Figure 12: The new Cree MX6S high voltage LED emitters

  • Figure 13: OSRAM's new OSLON-150 beam angle LED in a tight array

  • Figure 14: The Citizen 26W and 41W LED arrays

  • Figure 15: The new 4 LED die OSTAR Lighting Plus from OSRAM

  • Figure 16: The new Yi LED from Everlight

  • Figure 17: The wavelength distributions of the new high-CRI XPG LEDs

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